A detailed appreciation of the hydrogeological setting for alignments has always been fundamental to rock engineering design in terms of establishing the effective stress environment. More recently, the indirect impacts of tunnel alignments and larger span caverns in urban environments, caused by groundwater inflow, have become major planning and design considerations. Permanently drained openings offer significant design and construction benefits, but the hydrogeological impact needs to be fully understood and mitigated were necessary.

Geo-Design have significant experience in groundwater engineering and pressure attenuation and have been instrumental in establishing design concepts, including mitigations procedures and methodologies for several major schemes.  This includes obtaining approval from regulatory authorities for schemes, often in sensitive settings.

Pattern of Groundwater Pressure Distribution